Surgery is a branch of medicine concerned with diseases and conditions requiring or amenable to operative or manual procedures. It employs operations in the treatment of disease or injury in which someone's body is cut open so that a doctor can repair, remove, or replace a diseased or damaged part. Surgery can involve cutting, abrading, suturing, or otherwise physically changing body tissues and organs.
The American College of Surgeons recognizes 14 surgical specialties:
Welcome to the Department of Surgery at IMTU! In the 18th century, with increasing knowledge of anatomy, such operative procedures as amputations of the extremities, excision of tumours on the surface of the body, and removal of stones from the urinary bladder had helped to firmly establish surgery in the medical curriculum. Accurate anatomical knowledge enabled surgeons to operate more rapidly; patients were sedated with opium or made drunk with alcohol, tied down, and a leg amputation, for example, could then be done in three to five minutes. The pain involved in such procedures, however, continued to limit expansion of the field until the introduction of ether anesthesia in 1846. The number of operations thereafter increased markedly, but only to accentuate the frequency and severity of “surgical infections.”
In the mid-19th century the French microbiologist Louis Pasteur developed an understanding of the relationship of bacteria to infectious diseases, and the application of this theory to wound sepsis by the British surgeon Joseph Lister from 1867 resulted in the technique of antisepsis, which brought about a remarkable reduction in the mortality rate from wound infections after operations. The twin emergence of anesthesia and antisepsis marked the beginning of modern surgery.
Contemporary surgical therapy is greatly helped by monitoring devices that are used during surgery and during the postoperative period. Blood pressure and pulse rate are monitored during an operation because a fall in the former and a rise in the latter give evidence of a critical loss of blood. Other items monitored are the heart contractions as indicated by electrocardiograms; tracings of brain waves recorded by electroencephalograms, which reflect changes in brain function; the oxygen level in arteries and veins; carbon dioxide partial pressure in the circulating blood; and respiratory volume and exchange. Intensive monitoring of the patient usually continues into the critical postoperative stage.
General surgery is being taught for the MBBS programme from the 3yr onwards. Students do both junior and senior clinical rotation. The surgical specialties of Anaesthesia & Critical Care, Otorhinolaryngology, Opthalmology, Orthopedic Surgery & Traumatology, Radiology, Oncology & Palliative Care are taught in the 7th & 8th semester. Each of these courses are also accompanied with either 2 or 4 weeks of clinical rotations.
Through sustainable, multidisciplinary teams: