Pediatrics & Child Health is the branch of medicine dealing with the health and medical care of infants, children, and adolescents from birth up to the age of 18. The word “paediatrics” means “healer of children”; they are derived from two Greek words: (pais = child) and (iatros = doctor or healer). Paediatrics is a relatively new medical specialty, developing only in the mid-19th century. Abraham Jacobi (1830–1919) is known as the father of paediatrics. Children's health was once a subset of adult medicine. In the 19th and early 20th century, people recognized pediatrics as a medical specialty because of the gradual awareness that the health problems of children are different from those of adults. It was also recognized that a child's response to illness, medications, and the environment depends upon the age of the child. Paediatrics & Child Health focuses on the well-being of children from conception through adolescence. It is vitally concerned with all aspects of children's growth and development and with the unique opportunity that each child has to achieve their full potential as a healthy adult.
Subspecialities in paediatrics include:
1. Child Mental Health:
These clinicians promote mental wellbeing and work with children and families with mental health difficulties.2. Community Child Health:
These doctors work with vulnerable groups of children, including those with developmental disorders and disabilities, complex behavioural presentations, and at risk of abuse or are being abused.3. General Paediatrics:
A general paediatrician is a doctor with the knowledge and skills to manage a wide range of health problems and concerns in children and young people.4. Neonatal Medicine:
Neonatologists are paediatric specialists whose expertise is looking after newborn infants or those born prematurely.5. Paediatric Allergy, Immunology & Infectious Diseases:
These specialists work with children with infectious, immunological and allergic disorders.6. Paediatric Clinical Pharmacology:
Paediatric clinical pharmacologists have expertise in the development of medicines and their safe, rational use.7. Paediatric Diabetes & Endocrinology:
Paediatric endocrinologists (diabetes and endocrinology paediatricians) have special expertise in looking after children and young people with hormone disorders.8. Paediatric Emergency Medicine:
This is a sub-specialty of both paediatrics and emergency medicine and is concerned with providing highly specialised acute health care to children of all ages.9. Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition:
A paediatric gastroenterologist supports children with disorders that affect the gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestines). A paediatric hepatologist works with children with liver diseases.10. Paediatric Inherited Metabolic Medicine:
Metabolic paediatricians care for children and families who have inherited disorders that affect the body’s normal biochemical reactions.11. Paediatric Intensive Care Medicine:
The paediatric intensive care physician resuscitates, stabilises, transfers and treats critically ill and injured children.12. Paediatric Nephrology:
A paediatric nephrologist manages children and young people with chronic and acute kidney disease, including the provision of dialysis and kidney transplantation.13. Paediatric Neurodisability:
A neurodisability paediatrician supports children and young people with disabilities resulting from congenital or acquired long-term conditions.14. Paediatric Neurology:
A paediatric neurologist is a doctor with (or trainee doctor working towards acquiring) expertise in diagnosing and managing the vast range of neurological disorders affecting children and young people.15. Paediatric Oncology:
Paediatric oncologists have specialist expertise in managing children with cancer.16. Paediatric Palliative Medicine:
Paediatric palliative medicine (PPM) doctors work with babies, children and young people with life-limiting conditions and life-threatening illness, and their families.17. Paediatric Respiratory Medicine:
Respiratory paediatricians are clinicians who have detailed knowledge and understanding of the respiratory system in children.18. Paediatric Rheumatology:
Paediatric rheumatologists care for children and young people with a range of conditions, from mechanical pains and juvenile arthritis to complex multi-system inflammatory disorders.
Welcome to the department of Paediatrics & Child Health! A healthy child's development actually begins before conception with the parents' health and their genetic legacy. It continues on to conception and through the prenatal period. During this time, there is naturally considerable overlap between pediatric concerns for the fetus and obstetrical concerns for the mother. Once the baby is delivered, there are new and important matters to address, such as breastfeeding, newborn screening tests, and sleeping safety. All too soon, there are health care appointments to be kept for well-baby checkups and vaccinations. These are followed by other issues such as when and how to introduce solid foods, toilet training, and when to see the dentist.
The field of pediatrics recognizes classic stages in growth and development, but these are not absolute since a child's growth and development constitute a continuum. A baby changes at an astonishing rate during the newborn period and early infancy. Before you know it, the baby becomes a toddler, next a child and, after a little more than a decade, enters adolescence. It is a busy, challenging period for both child and parent.
The aims of the study of paediatrics is to reduce infant and child rate of deaths, control the spread of infectious disease, promote healthy lifestyles for a long disease-free life and help ease the problems of children and adolescents with chronic conditions.
Paediatricians diagnose and treat several conditions among children including:
Injuries. Infections. Genetic and congenital conditions. Cancers. Organ diseases and dysfunctions.
Paediatrics is concerned not only about immediate management of the ill child but also long term effects on quality of life, disability and survival. Paediatricians are involved with the prevention, early detection, and management of problems including:-
Developmental delays and disorders. Behavioral problems. Functional disabilities. Social stresses. Mental disorders including depression and anxiety disorders.
Paediatrics is a collaborative specialty. Paediatricians need to work closely with other medical specialists and healthcare professionals and subspecialists of paediatrics to help children with problems.
Paediatrics is different from adult medicine in more ways than one. The smaller body of an infant or neonate or a child is substantially different physiologically from that of an adult. So treating children is not like treating a miniature adult.
Congenital defects, genetic variance, and developmental issues are of greater concern to pediatricians than physicians treating adults. In addition, there are several legal issues in paediatrics. Children are minors and, in most jurisdictions, cannot make decisions for themselves. The issues of guardianship, privacy, legal responsibility and informed consent should be considered in every pediatric procedure.
The department offers courses for MBBS & BSc Nursing students. It also hosts MMed in Paediatrics & Child Health. Consultancy services are given for patients at IMTU Hospital.
Welcome to the Department of Pathology & Forensic Medicine at IMTU! Pathology is concerned with the diagnosis of diseases. The discipline provides basic education for medical students (general and systematic pathology as well as forensic medicine). Clinical pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids, such as blood, urine, and tissue homogenates or extracts using the tools of chemistry, microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology. Clinical pathologists often direct all of the special divisions of the laboratory, which may include the blood bank, clinical chemistry and biology, toxicology, hematology, immunology and serology, and microbiology. Clinical pathology also involves maintenance of laboratory information systems, research, and quality control. “The practice of pathology is most often conducted in community hospitals or in academic medical centers, where patient care, diagnostic services, and research go hand in hand. Creation of new knowledge is the lifeblood of pathology and many academic pathologists devote significant time in their career to research.”
Tools of clinical pathology include macroscopic examination, microscopes, microscopical examination, analyzers, centrifuges and cultures.
Forensic pathology is a sub-specialty of pathology, and is concerned with the application of pathological principles to the investigation of the medico-legal aspects of death. It directs its efforts to the examination of living or dead persons in order to provide an opinion concerning the cause, mechanism, and manner of disease, injury or death; the identification of persons; the significance of biological and physical evidence; the correlation and/or reconstruction of wounds, wound patterns, and sequences; and conducting comprehensive medicolegal death investigations. Forensic pathologists are medically qualified doctors who perform autopsies (postmortem examinations) on those who have died suddenly, unexpectedly, or as a result of trauma or poisoning. Forensic or legal medicine has been described as a key to the past, the explanation of the present and to some extent a signpost to the future.
The department offers courses for MBBS, BSc MLT and BSc Nursing students as well as MMed students. Our faculty provides instruction in the Basic Science Fundamentals curriculum that includes Histology, Gross Anatomical pathology, Basic Pathology, Neuropathology, and Organ System Pathology in the Pathology course. Forensic Medicine and Ethics & Professionalism courses are also taught for MBBS students is separately taught in different semesters. General pathology and Cytopathology courses are taught for BSc MLT students.